双语阅读:美国小学高年级数学课程标准,看看和我们小时候的数学课程有什么不同!

美国小学高年级数学课程标准

翻译:涂博士(微信号:jefftu95)

在美国,各个州的课程框架都是各不相同的。现在各州的数学教学标准越来越强调数学教学不能和我们的世界脱节,要理论联系实际,但同时也要注重计算思维训练和熟练掌握数学技巧来解决问题并加深对问题的理解。

许多州的课程正在朝着更加统一的标准发展。制定《通用数学核心州立标准》(CCSSM)一方面是为了让全社会更加重视数学,同时也是为了让数学教学更加具有连贯性。虽然并非所有州都采用了《通用数学核心州立标准》,并且这个标准只是各州制定课程框架的指导原则,但这个标准已广泛影响了美国的数学教育。标准描述了各级数学教育者应该培养学生哪些知识和技能。此外,州教育主管委员会还提供了一系列的工具,资源和行动来帮助各州实施《通用核心州立标准》。

小学高年级(3至5年级)数学课程标准


整数的概念,包括位置值和顺序
用整数加,减,乘和/或除
倍数和因子的概念;奇数和偶数
分数的概念(分数作为整体或集合的一部分,或在数字线上的位置)
用分数加减;比较和排序分数
小数的概念,包括位置值和顺序
数字句子(查找缺失的数字,用数字句子模拟简单情况)
数字模式(扩展数字模式,查找缺少的术语)

几何
平行线和垂直线
比较和绘制角度
常见几何形状的基本属性
在坐标平面上绘制点以解决实际问题和数学问题

计量与数据
解决涉及计量,时间间隔,金钱和质量的估计的问题
在给定的计量系统中转换类似的测量单位
使用数学工具(例如标尺和量角器)进行测量
查找和估计面积,周长和体积
组织分析象形图,条形图和折线图中的数据
从表,象形图和条形图中读取数据
从数据显示中得出结论

在开始阅读英文原文之前,请先复习下列核心词汇​:

mathematics - n. 数学
curriculum - n. 课程,课表
framework - n. 框架
state - n. 州
increasingly - adv. 越来越
emphasize - v. 强调
mathematical - adj. 数学的
content - n. 内容
context - n. 上下文,语境,景况,前后关系
focus - v. 聚焦
comptational - adj. 计算的
thinking - n. 思考
fluency - n. 流利,熟练掌握
coherence - n. 连贯性
framework - n. 框架
adopt - v. 采纳
guidline - n. 指导
knowledge - n. 知识
skill - n. 技能

在复习了以上词汇后,请将下面的英文原文一口气读完,不要在中途停下来去查那些不认识的单词。有了上面的核心单词打底,你完全可以将整篇文章读完并且理解里面的大致意思。记住,你只要做到大致明白就可以了。

阅读能力和阅读量成正比,要提高阅读量,必须是大量的泛读,如果要对每个不懂的单词都去查字典,那么就不可能通过大量的泛读来提高你的阅读量。

如果你对某篇泛读文章特别喜欢,可以在泛读一遍以后再慢慢地精读。如果在精读的过程中对某些句子不是太明白需要讲解,或者你希望以后多看到哪方面的双语阅读,欢迎联系涂博士(微信号:jefftu95)。

The Mathematics Curriculum in Primary Grades

TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center

Boston College

In the United States, the curriculum frameworks of individual states vary. Mathematics standards across the states increasingly emphasize learning mathematical content in the context of real-world situations while also focusing on computational thinking and mathematical fluency to solve problems and foster a deeper understanding.

Many state curricula are moving toward a more unified approach. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) were developed in order to bring greater focus and coherence to the teaching of mathematics. While not all states have adopted the CCSSM, and they are only guidelines for states in the development of their curriculum frameworks, they have widely influenced mathematics education in the United States. They describe knowledge and skills that mathematics educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students. In addition, the Council of Chief State School Officers has developed a list of tools, resources, and practices to help states implement Common Core State Standards.

Mathematics Curriculum Topics in Upper Elementary School

Numbers
Concepts of whole numbers, including place value and ordering.
Adding, subtracting, multiplying, and/or dividing with whole numbers.
Concepts of multiples and factors; odd and even numbers.
Concepts of fractions (fractions as parts of a whole or of a collection, or as a location on a number line).
Adding and subtracting with fractions; comparing and ordering fractions.
Concepts of decimals, including place value and ordering.
Number sentences (finding the missing number, modeling simple situations with number sentences).
Number patterns (extending number patterns, finding missing terms).

Geometry
Parallel and perpendicular lines.
Comparing and drawing angles.
Elementary properties of common geometric shapes.
Graphing points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

Measurement and Data
Solving problems involving measurement, estimation of intervals of time, money, and mass.
Converting like measurement units within a given measurement system.
Measurement using mathematical tools (e.g., ruler and protractor).
Finding and estimating areas, perimeters, and volumes.
Organizing data in pictographs, bar graphs, and line plots.
Reading data from tables, pictographs, and bar graphs.

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